About Adrenal Gland

In humans there are two adrenal glands one each on the left and right side. It is located just superior to the upper pole of the kidney. It weighs about 5gms each.  It produces hormones like glucocorticoids, minerallocorticoids and sex hormones. The inner part of the adrenal gland is the adrenal medulla which produces epinephrines and nor epinephrines.

Adrenal gland can hypofunction or Hyperfunction. Hypofunction can occur after removal of adrenal glands at surgery or due to disease like tuberculosis or fungal infections. Hyperfunctioning can occur due to tumors. Most common presentation of these cases is hypertension which is difficult to control and it occurs in young patients.

The common tumors are:

  1. Aldosteronoma
  2. Cushings syndrome
  3. Pheochromocytoma
  4. Non functional adrenal incidentaloma
  5. Adrenal carcinoma

Important publications by Dr Pradeep in this area:

  1. PV Pradeep, SK Mishra. Preoperative preparation and surgical techniques in adrenal diseases. Annals of Endocrine Surgery 2006, 9(1): 34-38
  2. Pradeep PV, Sashidharan PK, Akbar MA Cushings syndrome due to a pancreatic islet cell tumour. J Assoc Physicians India1996 Nov;44(11):840.
  3. Agarwal V, Agarwal A, AK Verma, Bhargava PRK, PV Pradeep Pheochromocytoma, stroke and myocardial infarction in a 43 year male with good functional recovery; a rare clinical sequele. Indian J Urol. June 2006;22:156-158
  4. Pradeep PV, Mishra A K, Agarwal V , Bhargav PRK , Gupta SK , Agarwal A. Adrenal cysts: an institutional experience: World J Surgery 2006, Vol 30 No: 10; 1817-1820